The Sanskrit Grammarian: Conjugation

Conjugation tables of kram

Primary Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmāmi | kramāmi krāmāvaḥ | kramāvaḥ krāmāmaḥ | kramāmaḥ
Secondkrāmasi | kramasi krāmathaḥ | kramathaḥ krāmatha | kramatha
Thirdkrāmati | kramati krāmataḥ | kramataḥ krāmanti | kramanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāme | krame krāmāvahe | kramāvahe krāmāmahe | kramāmahe
Secondkrāmase | kramase krāmethe | kramethe krāmadhve | kramadhve
Thirdkrāmate | kramate krāmete | kramete krāmante | kramante


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkramye kramyāvahe kramyāmahe
Secondkramyase kramyethe kramyadhve
Thirdkramyate kramyete kramyante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstakrāmam | akramam akrāmāva | akramāva akrāmāma | akramāma
Secondakrāmaḥ | akramaḥ akrāmatam | akramatam akrāmata | akramata
Thirdakrāmat | akramat akrāmatām | akramatām akrāman | akraman


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstakrāme | akrame akrāmāvahi | akramāvahi akrāmāmahi | akramāmahi
Secondakrāmathāḥ | akramathāḥ akrāmethām | akramethām akrāmadhvam | akramadhvam
Thirdakrāmata | akramata akrāmetām | akrametām akrāmanta | akramanta


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstakramye akramyāvahi akramyāmahi
Secondakramyathāḥ akramyethām akramyadhvam
Thirdakramyata akramyetām akramyanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmeyam | krameyam krāmeva | krameva krāmema | kramema
Secondkrāmeḥ | krameḥ krāmetam | krametam krāmeta | krameta
Thirdkrāmet | kramet krāmetām | krametām krāmeyuḥ | krameyuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmeya | krameya krāmevahi | kramevahi krāmemahi | kramemahi
Secondkrāmethāḥ | kramethāḥ krāmeyāthām | krameyāthām krāmedhvam | kramedhvam
Thirdkrāmeta | krameta krāmeyātām | krameyātām krāmeran | krameran


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkramyeya kramyevahi kramyemahi
Secondkramyethāḥ kramyeyāthām kramyedhvam
Thirdkramyeta kramyeyātām kramyeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmāṇi | kramāṇi krāmāva | kramāva krāmāma | kramāma
Secondkrāma | krama krāmatam | kramatam krāmata | kramata
Thirdkrāmatu | kramatu krāmatām | kramatām krāmantu | kramantu


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmai | kramai krāmāvahai | kramāvahai krāmāmahai | kramāmahai
Secondkrāmasva | kramasva krāmethām | kramethām krāmadhvam | kramadhvam
Thirdkrāmatām | kramatām krāmetām | krametām krāmantām | kramantām


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkramyai kramyāvahai kramyāmahai
Secondkramyasva kramyethām kramyadhvam
Thirdkramyatām kramyetām kramyantām


Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkramiṣyāmi | kraṃsyāmi kramiṣyāvaḥ | kraṃsyāvaḥ kramiṣyāmaḥ | kraṃsyāmaḥ
Secondkramiṣyasi | kraṃsyasi kramiṣyathaḥ | kraṃsyathaḥ kramiṣyatha | kraṃsyatha
Thirdkramiṣyati | kraṃsyati kramiṣyataḥ | kraṃsyataḥ kramiṣyanti | kraṃsyanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkramiṣye | kraṃsye kramiṣyāvahe | kraṃsyāvahe kramiṣyāmahe | kraṃsyāmahe
Secondkramiṣyase | kraṃsyase kramiṣyethe | kraṃsyethe kramiṣyadhve | kraṃsyadhve
Thirdkramiṣyate | kraṃsyate kramiṣyete | kraṃsyete kramiṣyante | kraṃsyante


Periphrastic Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkramitāsmi | krantāsmi kramitāsvaḥ | krantāsvaḥ kramitāsmaḥ | krantāsmaḥ
Secondkramitāsi | krantāsi kramitāsthaḥ | krantāsthaḥ kramitāstha | krantāstha
Thirdkramitā | krantā kramitārau | krantārau kramitāraḥ | krantāraḥ


Perfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcakrāma | cakrama cakramiva cakramima
Secondcakramitha cakramathuḥ cakrama
Thirdcakrāma cakramatuḥ cakramuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcakrame cakramivahe cakramimahe
Secondcakramiṣe cakramāthe cakramidhve
Thirdcakrame cakramāte cakramire


Aorist

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstakramiṣam | akramam akramiṣva | akraṇva akramiṣma | akraṇma
Secondakramīḥ | akran akramiṣṭam | akrantam akramiṣṭa | akranta
Thirdakramīt | akran akramiṣṭām | akrantām akramuḥ | akramiṣuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstakramiṣi akramiṣvahi akramiṣmahi
Secondakramiṣṭhāḥ akramiṣāthām akramidhvam
Thirdakrāmi | akramiṣṭa akramiṣātām akramiṣata


Injunctive

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkramiṣam kramiṣva kramiṣma
Secondkramīḥ kramiṣṭam kramiṣṭa
Thirdkramīt kramiṣṭām kramiṣuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkramiṣi kramiṣvahi kramiṣmahi
Secondkramiṣṭhāḥ kramiṣāthām kramidhvam
Thirdkramiṣṭa kramiṣātām kramiṣata

Participles

Past Passive Participle
krānta m. n. krāntā f.

Past Active Participle
krāntavat m. n. krāntavatī f.

Present Active Participle
krāmat m. n. krāmantī f.

Present Active Participle
kramat m. n. kramantī f.

Present Middle Participle
kramamāṇa m. n. kramamāṇā f.

Present Middle Participle
krāmamāṇa m. n. krāmamāṇā f.

Present Passive Participle
kramyamāṇa m. n. kramyamāṇā f.

Future Active Participle
kraṃsyat m. n. kraṃsyantī f.

Future Active Participle
kramiṣyat m. n. kramiṣyantī f.

Future Middle Participle
kramiṣyamāṇa m. n. kramiṣyamāṇā f.

Future Middle Participle
kraṃsyamāna m. n. kraṃsyamānā f.

Future Passive Participle
krantavya m. n. krantavyā f.

Future Passive Participle
kramitavya m. n. kramitavyā f.

Future Passive Participle
kramya m. n. kramyā f.

Future Passive Participle
kramaṇīya m. n. kramaṇīyā f.

Perfect Active Participle
cakraṇvaḥ m. n. cakramuṣī f.

Perfect Middle Participle
cakramāṇa m. n. cakramāṇā f.

Indeclinable forms

Infinitive
kramitum

Infinitive
krantum

Absolutive
krāmam

Absolutive
krāntvā

Absolutive
kramitvā

Absolutive
krantvā

Absolutive
-krāmam

Absolutive
-kramya

Causative Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmayāmi | kramayāmi krāmayāvaḥ | kramayāvaḥ krāmayāmaḥ | kramayāmaḥ
Secondkrāmayasi | kramayasi krāmayathaḥ | kramayathaḥ krāmayatha | kramayatha
Thirdkrāmayati | kramayati krāmayataḥ | kramayataḥ krāmayanti | kramayanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmaye | kramaye krāmayāvahe | kramayāvahe krāmayāmahe | kramayāmahe
Secondkrāmayase | kramayase krāmayethe | kramayethe krāmayadhve | kramayadhve
Thirdkrāmayate | kramayate krāmayete | kramayete krāmayante | kramayante


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmye | kramye krāmyāvahe | kramyāvahe krāmyāmahe | kramyāmahe
Secondkrāmyase | kramyase krāmyethe | kramyethe krāmyadhve | kramyadhve
Thirdkrāmyate | kramyate krāmyete | kramyete krāmyante | kramyante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstakrāmayam | akramayam akrāmayāva | akramayāva akrāmayāma | akramayāma
Secondakrāmayaḥ | akramayaḥ akrāmayatam | akramayatam akrāmayata | akramayata
Thirdakrāmayat | akramayat akrāmayatām | akramayatām akrāmayan | akramayan


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstakrāmaye | akramaye akrāmayāvahi | akramayāvahi akrāmayāmahi | akramayāmahi
Secondakrāmayathāḥ | akramayathāḥ akrāmayethām | akramayethām akrāmayadhvam | akramayadhvam
Thirdakrāmayata | akramayata akrāmayetām | akramayetām akrāmayanta | akramayanta


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstakrāmye | akramye akrāmyāvahi | akramyāvahi akrāmyāmahi | akramyāmahi
Secondakrāmyathāḥ | akramyathāḥ akrāmyethām | akramyethām akrāmyadhvam | akramyadhvam
Thirdakrāmyata | akramyata akrāmyetām | akramyetām akrāmyanta | akramyanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmayeyam | kramayeyam krāmayeva | kramayeva krāmayema | kramayema
Secondkrāmayeḥ | kramayeḥ krāmayetam | kramayetam krāmayeta | kramayeta
Thirdkrāmayet | kramayet krāmayetām | kramayetām krāmayeyuḥ | kramayeyuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmayeya | kramayeya krāmayevahi | kramayevahi krāmayemahi | kramayemahi
Secondkrāmayethāḥ | kramayethāḥ krāmayeyāthām | kramayeyāthām krāmayedhvam | kramayedhvam
Thirdkrāmayeta | kramayeta krāmayeyātām | kramayeyātām krāmayeran | kramayeran


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmyeya | kramyeya krāmyevahi | kramyevahi krāmyemahi | kramyemahi
Secondkrāmyethāḥ | kramyethāḥ krāmyeyāthām | kramyeyāthām krāmyedhvam | kramyedhvam
Thirdkrāmyeta | kramyeta krāmyeyātām | kramyeyātām krāmyeran | kramyeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmayāṇi | kramayāṇi krāmayāva | kramayāva krāmayāma | kramayāma
Secondkrāmaya | kramaya krāmayatam | kramayatam krāmayata | kramayata
Thirdkrāmayatu | kramayatu krāmayatām | kramayatām krāmayantu | kramayantu


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmayai | kramayai krāmayāvahai | kramayāvahai krāmayāmahai | kramayāmahai
Secondkrāmayasva | kramayasva krāmayethām | kramayethām krāmayadhvam | kramayadhvam
Thirdkrāmayatām | kramayatām krāmayetām | kramayetām krāmayantām | kramayantām


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmyai | kramyai krāmyāvahai | kramyāvahai krāmyāmahai | kramyāmahai
Secondkrāmyasva | kramyasva krāmyethām | kramyethām krāmyadhvam | kramyadhvam
Thirdkrāmyatām | kramyatām krāmyetām | kramyetām krāmyantām | kramyantām


Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmayiṣyāmi | kramayiṣyāmi krāmayiṣyāvaḥ | kramayiṣyāvaḥ krāmayiṣyāmaḥ | kramayiṣyāmaḥ
Secondkrāmayiṣyasi | kramayiṣyasi krāmayiṣyathaḥ | kramayiṣyathaḥ krāmayiṣyatha | kramayiṣyatha
Thirdkrāmayiṣyati | kramayiṣyati krāmayiṣyataḥ | kramayiṣyataḥ krāmayiṣyanti | kramayiṣyanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmayiṣye | kramayiṣye krāmayiṣyāvahe | kramayiṣyāvahe krāmayiṣyāmahe | kramayiṣyāmahe
Secondkrāmayiṣyase | kramayiṣyase krāmayiṣyethe | kramayiṣyethe krāmayiṣyadhve | kramayiṣyadhve
Thirdkrāmayiṣyate | kramayiṣyate krāmayiṣyete | kramayiṣyete krāmayiṣyante | kramayiṣyante


Periphrastic Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstkrāmayitāsmi | kramayitāsmi krāmayitāsvaḥ | kramayitāsvaḥ krāmayitāsmaḥ | kramayitāsmaḥ
Secondkrāmayitāsi | kramayitāsi krāmayitāsthaḥ | kramayitāsthaḥ krāmayitāstha | kramayitāstha
Thirdkrāmayitā | kramayitā krāmayitārau | kramayitārau krāmayitāraḥ | kramayitāraḥ

Participles

Past Passive Participle
kramita m. n. kramitā f.

Past Passive Participle
krāmita m. n. krāmitā f.

Past Active Participle
krāmitavat m. n. krāmitavatī f.

Past Active Participle
kramitavat m. n. kramitavatī f.

Present Active Participle
kramayat m. n. kramayantī f.

Present Active Participle
krāmayat m. n. krāmayantī f.

Present Middle Participle
krāmayamāṇa m. n. krāmayamāṇā f.

Present Middle Participle
kramayamāṇa m. n. kramayamāṇā f.

Present Passive Participle
kramyamāṇa m. n. kramyamāṇā f.

Present Passive Participle
krāmyamāṇa m. n. krāmyamāṇā f.

Future Active Participle
krāmayiṣyat m. n. krāmayiṣyantī f.

Future Active Participle
kramayiṣyat m. n. kramayiṣyantī f.

Future Middle Participle
kramayiṣyamāṇa m. n. kramayiṣyamāṇā f.

Future Middle Participle
krāmayiṣyamāṇa m. n. krāmayiṣyamāṇā f.

Future Passive Participle
krāmya m. n. krāmyā f.

Future Passive Participle
krāmaṇīya m. n. krāmaṇīyā f.

Future Passive Participle
krāmayitavya m. n. krāmayitavyā f.

Future Passive Participle
kramya m. n. kramyā f.

Future Passive Participle
kramaṇīya m. n. kramaṇīyā f.

Future Passive Participle
kramayitavya m. n. kramayitavyā f.

Indeclinable forms

Infinitive
krāmayitum

Infinitive
kramayitum

Absolutive
krāmayitvā

Absolutive
kramayitvā

Absolutive
-krāmayya

Absolutive
-kramayya

Periphrastic Perfect
krāmayām

Periphrastic Perfect
kramayām

Intensive Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcaṅkramīmi | caṅkraṇmi caṅkraṇvaḥ caṅkraṇmaḥ
Secondcaṅkramīṣi | caṅkraṃsi caṅkranthaḥ caṅkrantha
Thirdcaṅkramīti | caṅkranti caṅkrantaḥ caṅkramati


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcaṅkramye caṅkramyāvahe caṅkramyāmahe
Secondcaṅkramyase caṅkramyethe caṅkramyadhve
Thirdcaṅkramyate caṅkramyete caṅkramyante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacaṅkramam acaṅkraṇva acaṅkraṇma
Secondacaṅkramīḥ | acaṅkramīt | acaṅkran acaṅkrantam acaṅkranta
Thirdacaṅkran acaṅkrantām acaṅkramuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstacaṅkramye acaṅkramyāvahi acaṅkramyāmahi
Secondacaṅkramyathāḥ acaṅkramyethām acaṅkramyadhvam
Thirdacaṅkramyata acaṅkramyetām acaṅkramyanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcaṅkramyām caṅkramyāva caṅkramyāma
Secondcaṅkramyāḥ caṅkramyātam caṅkramyāta
Thirdcaṅkramyāt caṅkramyātām caṅkramyuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcaṅkramyeya caṅkramyevahi caṅkramyemahi
Secondcaṅkramyethāḥ caṅkramyeyāthām caṅkramyedhvam
Thirdcaṅkramyeta caṅkramyeyātām caṅkramyeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcaṅkramāṇi caṅkramāva caṅkramāma
Secondcaṅkrandhi caṅkrantam caṅkranta
Thirdcaṅkramītu | caṅkrantu caṅkrantām caṅkramatu


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcaṅkramyai caṅkramyāvahai caṅkramyāmahai
Secondcaṅkramyasva caṅkramyethām caṅkramyadhvam
Thirdcaṅkramyatām caṅkramyetām caṅkramyantām

Participles

Present Active Participle
caṅkramat m. n. caṅkramatī f.

Present Middle Participle
caṅkramyamāṇa m. n. caṅkramyamāṇā f.

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