The Sanskrit Grammarian: Conjugation

Conjugation tables of

Primary Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvayāmi hvayāvaḥ hvayāmaḥ
Secondhvayasi hvayathaḥ hvayatha
Thirdhvayati hvayataḥ hvayanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firsthvaye | have hvayāvahe | havāvahe hvayāmahe | havāmahe
Secondhvayase | havase hvayethe | havethe hvayadhve | havadhve
Thirdhvayate | havate hvayete | havete hvayante | havante


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthūye hūyāvahe hūyāmahe
Secondhūyase hūyethe hūyadhve
Thirdhūyate hūyete hūyante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstahvayam ahvayāva ahvayāma
Secondahvayaḥ ahvayatam ahvayata
Thirdahvayat ahvayatām ahvayan


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstahvaye | ahave ahvayāvahi | ahavāvahi ahvayāmahi | ahavāmahi
Secondahvayathāḥ | ahavathāḥ ahvayethām | ahavethām ahvayadhvam | ahavadhvam
Thirdahvayata | ahavata ahvayetām | ahavetām ahvayanta | ahavanta


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstahūye ahūyāvahi ahūyāmahi
Secondahūyathāḥ ahūyethām ahūyadhvam
Thirdahūyata ahūyetām ahūyanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvayeyam hvayeva hvayema
Secondhvayeḥ hvayetam hvayeta
Thirdhvayet hvayetām hvayeyuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firsthvayeya | haveya hvayevahi | havevahi hvayemahi | havemahi
Secondhvayethāḥ | havethāḥ hvayeyāthām | haveyāthām hvayedhvam | havedhvam
Thirdhvayeta | haveta hvayeyātām | haveyātām hvayeran | haveran


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthūyeya hūyevahi hūyemahi
Secondhūyethāḥ hūyeyāthām hūyedhvam
Thirdhūyeta hūyeyātām hūyeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvayāni hvayāva hvayāma
Secondhvaya hvayatam hvayata
Thirdhvayatu hvayatām hvayantu


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firsthvayai | havai hvayāvahai | havāvahai hvayāmahai | havāmahai
Secondhvayasva | havasva hvayethām | havethām hvayadhvam | havadhvam
Thirdhvayatām | havatām hvayetām | havetām hvayantām | havantām


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthūyai hūyāvahai hūyāmahai
Secondhūyasva hūyethām hūyadhvam
Thirdhūyatām hūyetām hūyantām


Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvayiṣyāmi hvayiṣyāvaḥ hvayiṣyāmaḥ
Secondhvayiṣyasi hvayiṣyathaḥ hvayiṣyatha
Thirdhvayiṣyati hvayiṣyataḥ hvayiṣyanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāsye | hvayiṣye hvāsyāvahe | hvayiṣyāvahe hvāsyāmahe | hvayiṣyāmahe
Secondhvāsyase | hvayiṣyase hvāsyethe | hvayiṣyethe hvāsyadhve | hvayiṣyadhve
Thirdhvāsyate | hvayiṣyate hvāsyete | hvayiṣyete hvāsyante | hvayiṣyante


Periphrastic Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvātāsmi hvātāsvaḥ hvātāsmaḥ
Secondhvātāsi hvātāsthaḥ hvātāstha
Thirdhvātā hvātārau hvātāraḥ


Perfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjuhāva | juhava juhuva juhuma
Secondjuhotha | juhavitha juhuvathuḥ juhuva
Thirdjuhāva juhuvatuḥ juhuvuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstjuhuve juhuvahe juhumahe
Secondjuhuṣe juhuvāthe juhudhve
Thirdjuhuve juhuvāte juhuvire


Aorist

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstahvam ahvāva ahvāma
Secondahvaḥ ahvatam ahvata
Thirdahvat ahvatām ahvan


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstahve ahvāvahi ahvāmahi
Secondahvathāḥ ahvethām ahvadhvam
Thirdahvata ahvetām ahvanta

Participles

Past Passive Participle
hūta m. n. hūtā f.

Past Active Participle
hūtavat m. n. hūtavatī f.

Present Active Participle
hvayat m. n. hvayantī f.

Present Middle Participle
hvayamāna m. n. hvayamānā f.

Present Middle Participle
havamāna m. n. havamānā f.

Present Passive Participle
hūyamāna m. n. hūyamānā f.

Future Active Participle
hvayiṣyat m. n. hvayiṣyantī f.

Future Middle Participle
hvāsyamāna m. n. hvāsyamānā f.

Future Middle Participle
hvayiṣyamāṇa m. n. hvayiṣyamāṇā f.

Future Passive Participle
hvātavya m. n. hvātavyā f.

Future Passive Participle
havya m. n. havyā f.

Future Passive Participle
havanīya m. n. havanīyā f.

Perfect Active Participle
juhūvaḥ m. n. juhūṣī f.

Perfect Middle Participle
juhvāna m. n. juhvānā f.

Indeclinable forms

Infinitive
hvātum

Infinitive
hvayitum

Absolutive
hūtvā

Absolutive
-hūya

Periphrastic Perfect
hvayām

Causative Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyayāmi hvāyayāvaḥ hvāyayāmaḥ
Secondhvāyayasi hvāyayathaḥ hvāyayatha
Thirdhvāyayati hvāyayataḥ hvāyayanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyaye hvāyayāvahe hvāyayāmahe
Secondhvāyayase hvāyayethe hvāyayadhve
Thirdhvāyayate hvāyayete hvāyayante


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyye hvāyyāvahe hvāyyāmahe
Secondhvāyyase hvāyyethe hvāyyadhve
Thirdhvāyyate hvāyyete hvāyyante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstahvāyayam ahvāyayāva ahvāyayāma
Secondahvāyayaḥ ahvāyayatam ahvāyayata
Thirdahvāyayat ahvāyayatām ahvāyayan


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstahvāyaye ahvāyayāvahi ahvāyayāmahi
Secondahvāyayathāḥ ahvāyayethām ahvāyayadhvam
Thirdahvāyayata ahvāyayetām ahvāyayanta


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstahvāyye ahvāyyāvahi ahvāyyāmahi
Secondahvāyyathāḥ ahvāyyethām ahvāyyadhvam
Thirdahvāyyata ahvāyyetām ahvāyyanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyayeyam hvāyayeva hvāyayema
Secondhvāyayeḥ hvāyayetam hvāyayeta
Thirdhvāyayet hvāyayetām hvāyayeyuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyayeya hvāyayevahi hvāyayemahi
Secondhvāyayethāḥ hvāyayeyāthām hvāyayedhvam
Thirdhvāyayeta hvāyayeyātām hvāyayeran


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyyeya hvāyyevahi hvāyyemahi
Secondhvāyyethāḥ hvāyyeyāthām hvāyyedhvam
Thirdhvāyyeta hvāyyeyātām hvāyyeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyayāni hvāyayāva hvāyayāma
Secondhvāyaya hvāyayatam hvāyayata
Thirdhvāyayatu hvāyayatām hvāyayantu


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyayai hvāyayāvahai hvāyayāmahai
Secondhvāyayasva hvāyayethām hvāyayadhvam
Thirdhvāyayatām hvāyayetām hvāyayantām


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyyai hvāyyāvahai hvāyyāmahai
Secondhvāyyasva hvāyyethām hvāyyadhvam
Thirdhvāyyatām hvāyyetām hvāyyantām


Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyayiṣyāmi hvāyayiṣyāvaḥ hvāyayiṣyāmaḥ
Secondhvāyayiṣyasi hvāyayiṣyathaḥ hvāyayiṣyatha
Thirdhvāyayiṣyati hvāyayiṣyataḥ hvāyayiṣyanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyayiṣye hvāyayiṣyāvahe hvāyayiṣyāmahe
Secondhvāyayiṣyase hvāyayiṣyethe hvāyayiṣyadhve
Thirdhvāyayiṣyate hvāyayiṣyete hvāyayiṣyante


Periphrastic Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firsthvāyayitāsmi hvāyayitāsvaḥ hvāyayitāsmaḥ
Secondhvāyayitāsi hvāyayitāsthaḥ hvāyayitāstha
Thirdhvāyayitā hvāyayitārau hvāyayitāraḥ

Participles

Past Passive Participle
hvāyita m. n. hvāyitā f.

Past Active Participle
hvāyitavat m. n. hvāyitavatī f.

Present Active Participle
hvāyayat m. n. hvāyayantī f.

Present Middle Participle
hvāyayamāna m. n. hvāyayamānā f.

Present Passive Participle
hvāyyamāna m. n. hvāyyamānā f.

Future Active Participle
hvāyayiṣyat m. n. hvāyayiṣyantī f.

Future Middle Participle
hvāyayiṣyamāṇa m. n. hvāyayiṣyamāṇā f.

Future Passive Participle
hvāyya m. n. hvāyyā f.

Future Passive Participle
hvāyanīya m. n. hvāyanīyā f.

Future Passive Participle
hvāyayitavya m. n. hvāyayitavyā f.

Indeclinable forms

Infinitive
hvāyayitum

Absolutive
hvāyayitvā

Absolutive
-hvāyya

Periphrastic Perfect
hvāyayām

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