The Sanskrit Grammarian: Conjugation

Conjugation tables of car

Primary Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcarāmi carāvaḥ carāmaḥ
Secondcarasi carathaḥ caratha
Thirdcarati carataḥ caranti


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcarye caryāvahe caryāmahe
Secondcaryase caryethe caryadhve
Thirdcaryate caryete caryante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacaram acarāva acarāma
Secondacaraḥ acaratam acarata
Thirdacarat acaratām acaran


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacarye acaryāvahi acaryāmahi
Secondacaryathāḥ acaryethām acaryadhvam
Thirdacaryata acaryetām acaryanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcareyam careva carema
Secondcareḥ caretam careta
Thirdcaret caretām careyuḥ


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcaryeya caryevahi caryemahi
Secondcaryethāḥ caryeyāthām caryedhvam
Thirdcaryeta caryeyātām caryeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcarāṇi carāva carāma
Secondcara caratam carata
Thirdcaratu caratām carantu


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcaryai caryāvahai caryāmahai
Secondcaryasva caryethām caryadhvam
Thirdcaryatām caryetām caryantām


Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcariṣyāmi cariṣyāvaḥ cariṣyāmaḥ
Secondcariṣyasi cariṣyathaḥ cariṣyatha
Thirdcariṣyati cariṣyataḥ cariṣyanti


Periphrastic Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcaritāsmi caritāsvaḥ caritāsmaḥ
Secondcaritāsi caritāsthaḥ caritāstha
Thirdcaritā caritārau caritāraḥ


Perfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcacāra | cacara ceriva cerima
Secondceritha | cacartha cerathuḥ cera
Thirdcacāra ceratuḥ ceruḥ


Aorist

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacīcaram | acāriṣam acīcarāva | acāriṣva acīcarāma | acāriṣma
Secondacīcaraḥ | acārīḥ acīcaratam | acāriṣṭam acīcarata | acāriṣṭa
Thirdacīcarat | acārīt acīcaratām | acāriṣṭām acīcaran | acāriṣuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstacīcare | acariṣi acīcarāvahi | acariṣvahi acīcarāmahi | acariṣmahi
Secondacīcarathāḥ | acariṣṭhāḥ acīcarethām | acariṣāthām acīcaradhvam | acaridhvam
Thirdacīcarata | acariṣṭa acīcaretām | acariṣātām acīcaranta | acariṣata


Injunctive

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcāriṣam cāriṣva cāriṣma
Secondcārīḥ cāriṣṭam cāriṣṭa
Thirdcārīt cāriṣṭām cāriṣuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcariṣi cariṣvahi cariṣmahi
Secondcariṣṭhāḥ cariṣāthām caridhvam
Thirdcariṣṭa cariṣātām cariṣata

Participles

Past Passive Participle
carita m. n. caritā f.

Past Passive Participle
cīrṇa m. n. cīrṇā f.

Past Active Participle
cīrṇavat m. n. cīrṇavatī f.

Past Active Participle
caritavat m. n. caritavatī f.

Present Active Participle
carat m. n. carantī f.

Present Passive Participle
caryamāṇa m. n. caryamāṇā f.

Future Active Participle
cariṣyat m. n. cariṣyantī f.

Future Passive Participle
caritavya m. n. caritavyā f.

Future Passive Participle
carya m. n. caryā f.

Future Passive Participle
caraṇīya m. n. caraṇīyā f.

Perfect Active Participle
cerivaḥ m. n. ceruṣī f.

Indeclinable forms

Infinitive
cartum

Infinitive
caritum

Absolutive
cīrtvā

Absolutive
cartvā

Absolutive
caritvā

Absolutive
-cīrya

Absolutive
-carya

Causative Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcārayāmi cārayāvaḥ cārayāmaḥ
Secondcārayasi cārayathaḥ cārayatha
Thirdcārayati cārayataḥ cārayanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcāraye cārayāvahe cārayāmahe
Secondcārayase cārayethe cārayadhve
Thirdcārayate cārayete cārayante


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcārye cāryāvahe cāryāmahe
Secondcāryase cāryethe cāryadhve
Thirdcāryate cāryete cāryante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacārayam acārayāva acārayāma
Secondacārayaḥ acārayatam acārayata
Thirdacārayat acārayatām acārayan


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstacāraye acārayāvahi acārayāmahi
Secondacārayathāḥ acārayethām acārayadhvam
Thirdacārayata acārayetām acārayanta


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacārye acāryāvahi acāryāmahi
Secondacāryathāḥ acāryethām acāryadhvam
Thirdacāryata acāryetām acāryanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcārayeyam cārayeva cārayema
Secondcārayeḥ cārayetam cārayeta
Thirdcārayet cārayetām cārayeyuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcārayeya cārayevahi cārayemahi
Secondcārayethāḥ cārayeyāthām cārayedhvam
Thirdcārayeta cārayeyātām cārayeran


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcāryeya cāryevahi cāryemahi
Secondcāryethāḥ cāryeyāthām cāryedhvam
Thirdcāryeta cāryeyātām cāryeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcārayāṇi cārayāva cārayāma
Secondcāraya cārayatam cārayata
Thirdcārayatu cārayatām cārayantu


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcārayai cārayāvahai cārayāmahai
Secondcārayasva cārayethām cārayadhvam
Thirdcārayatām cārayetām cārayantām


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcāryai cāryāvahai cāryāmahai
Secondcāryasva cāryethām cāryadhvam
Thirdcāryatām cāryetām cāryantām


Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcārayiṣyāmi cārayiṣyāvaḥ cārayiṣyāmaḥ
Secondcārayiṣyasi cārayiṣyathaḥ cārayiṣyatha
Thirdcārayiṣyati cārayiṣyataḥ cārayiṣyanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstcārayiṣye cārayiṣyāvahe cārayiṣyāmahe
Secondcārayiṣyase cārayiṣyethe cārayiṣyadhve
Thirdcārayiṣyate cārayiṣyete cārayiṣyante


Periphrastic Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcārayitāsmi cārayitāsvaḥ cārayitāsmaḥ
Secondcārayitāsi cārayitāsthaḥ cārayitāstha
Thirdcārayitā cārayitārau cārayitāraḥ

Participles

Past Passive Participle
cārita m. n. cāritā f.

Past Active Participle
cāritavat m. n. cāritavatī f.

Present Active Participle
cārayat m. n. cārayantī f.

Present Middle Participle
cārayamāṇa m. n. cārayamāṇā f.

Present Passive Participle
cāryamāṇa m. n. cāryamāṇā f.

Future Active Participle
cārayiṣyat m. n. cārayiṣyantī f.

Future Middle Participle
cārayiṣyamāṇa m. n. cārayiṣyamāṇā f.

Future Passive Participle
cārya m. n. cāryā f.

Future Passive Participle
cāraṇīya m. n. cāraṇīyā f.

Future Passive Participle
cārayitavya m. n. cārayitavyā f.

Indeclinable forms

Infinitive
cārayitum

Absolutive
cārayitvā

Absolutive
-cārya

Periphrastic Perfect
cārayām

Intensive Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcarcarmi | carcarīmi carcarvaḥ carcarmaḥ
Secondcarcarṣi | carcarīṣi carcarthaḥ carcartha
Thirdcarcarti | carcarīti carcartaḥ carcarati


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacarcaram acarcarva acarcarma
Secondacarcarīḥ | acarcarīt | acarcaḥ acarcartam acarcarta
Thirdacarcaḥ acarcartām acarcaruḥ


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcarcaryām carcaryāva carcaryāma
Secondcarcaryāḥ carcaryātam carcaryāta
Thirdcarcaryāt carcaryātām carcaryuḥ


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcarcarāṇi carcarāva carcarāma
Secondcarcardhi carcartam carcarta
Thirdcarcartu | carcarītu carcartām carcaratu

Participles

Present Active Participle
carcarat m. n. carcaratī f.

Desiderative Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicariṣāmi cicariṣāvaḥ cicariṣāmaḥ
Secondcicariṣasi cicariṣathaḥ cicariṣatha
Thirdcicariṣati cicariṣataḥ cicariṣanti


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicariṣye cicariṣyāvahe cicariṣyāmahe
Secondcicariṣyase cicariṣyethe cicariṣyadhve
Thirdcicariṣyate cicariṣyete cicariṣyante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacicariṣam acicariṣāva acicariṣāma
Secondacicariṣaḥ acicariṣatam acicariṣata
Thirdacicariṣat acicariṣatām acicariṣan


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstacicariṣye acicariṣyāvahi acicariṣyāmahi
Secondacicariṣyathāḥ acicariṣyethām acicariṣyadhvam
Thirdacicariṣyata acicariṣyetām acicariṣyanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicariṣeyam cicariṣeva cicariṣema
Secondcicariṣeḥ cicariṣetam cicariṣeta
Thirdcicariṣet cicariṣetām cicariṣeyuḥ


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicariṣyeya cicariṣyevahi cicariṣyemahi
Secondcicariṣyethāḥ cicariṣyeyāthām cicariṣyedhvam
Thirdcicariṣyeta cicariṣyeyātām cicariṣyeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicariṣāṇi cicariṣāva cicariṣāma
Secondcicariṣa cicariṣatam cicariṣata
Thirdcicariṣatu cicariṣatām cicariṣantu


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicariṣyai cicariṣyāvahai cicariṣyāmahai
Secondcicariṣyasva cicariṣyethām cicariṣyadhvam
Thirdcicariṣyatām cicariṣyetām cicariṣyantām


Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicariṣyāmi cicariṣyāvaḥ cicariṣyāmaḥ
Secondcicariṣyasi cicariṣyathaḥ cicariṣyatha
Thirdcicariṣyati cicariṣyataḥ cicariṣyanti


Periphrastic Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicariṣitāsmi cicariṣitāsvaḥ cicariṣitāsmaḥ
Secondcicariṣitāsi cicariṣitāsthaḥ cicariṣitāstha
Thirdcicariṣitā cicariṣitārau cicariṣitāraḥ


Perfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstcicicariṣa cicicariṣiva cicicariṣima
Secondcicicariṣitha cicicariṣathuḥ cicicariṣa
Thirdcicicariṣa cicicariṣatuḥ cicicariṣuḥ

Participles

Past Passive Participle
cicariṣita m. n. cicariṣitā f.

Past Active Participle
cicariṣitavat m. n. cicariṣitavatī f.

Present Active Participle
cicariṣat m. n. cicariṣantī f.

Present Passive Participle
cicariṣyamāṇa m. n. cicariṣyamāṇā f.

Future Active Participle
cicariṣyat m. n. cicariṣyantī f.

Future Passive Participle
cicariṣaṇīya m. n. cicariṣaṇīyā f.

Future Passive Participle
cicariṣya m. n. cicariṣyā f.

Future Passive Participle
cicariṣitavya m. n. cicariṣitavyā f.

Perfect Active Participle
cicicariṣvaḥ m. n. cicicariṣuṣī f.

Indeclinable forms

Infinitive
cicariṣitum

Absolutive
cicariṣitvā

Absolutive
-cicariṣya

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