The Sanskrit Grammarian: Conjugation

Conjugation tables of

Primary Conjugation

Present

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjavāmi javāvaḥ javāmaḥ
Secondjavasi javathaḥ javatha
Thirdjavati javataḥ javanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstjave javāvahe javāmahe
Secondjavase javethe javadhve
Thirdjavate javete javante


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjūye jūyāvahe jūyāmahe
Secondjūyase jūyethe jūyadhve
Thirdjūyate jūyete jūyante


Imperfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstajavam ajavāva ajavāma
Secondajavaḥ ajavatam ajavata
Thirdajavat ajavatām ajavan


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstajave ajavāvahi ajavāmahi
Secondajavathāḥ ajavethām ajavadhvam
Thirdajavata ajavetām ajavanta


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstajūye ajūyāvahi ajūyāmahi
Secondajūyathāḥ ajūyethām ajūyadhvam
Thirdajūyata ajūyetām ajūyanta


Optative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjaveyam javeva javema
Secondjaveḥ javetam javeta
Thirdjavet javetām javeyuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstjaveya javevahi javemahi
Secondjavethāḥ javeyāthām javedhvam
Thirdjaveta javeyātām javeran


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjūyeya jūyevahi jūyemahi
Secondjūyethāḥ jūyeyāthām jūyedhvam
Thirdjūyeta jūyeyātām jūyeran


Imperative

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjavāni javāva javāma
Secondjava javatam javata
Thirdjavatu javatām javantu


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstjavai javāvahai javāmahai
Secondjavasva javethām javadhvam
Thirdjavatām javetām javantām


PassiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjūyai jūyāvahai jūyāmahai
Secondjūyasva jūyethām jūyadhvam
Thirdjūyatām jūyetām jūyantām


Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjaviṣyāmi javiṣyāvaḥ javiṣyāmaḥ
Secondjaviṣyasi javiṣyathaḥ javiṣyatha
Thirdjaviṣyati javiṣyataḥ javiṣyanti


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstjaviṣye javiṣyāvahe javiṣyāmahe
Secondjaviṣyase javiṣyethe javiṣyadhve
Thirdjaviṣyate javiṣyete javiṣyante


Periphrastic Future

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjavitāsmi javitāsvaḥ javitāsmaḥ
Secondjavitāsi javitāsthaḥ javitāstha
Thirdjavitā javitārau javitāraḥ


Perfect

ActiveSingularDualPlural
Firstjujāva | jujava jujuva jujuma
Secondjujotha | jujavitha jujuvathuḥ jujuva
Thirdjujāva jujuvatuḥ jujuvuḥ


MiddleSingularDualPlural
Firstjujuve jujuvahe jujumahe
Secondjujuṣe jujuvāthe jujudhve
Thirdjujuve jujuvāte jujuvire

Participles

Past Passive Participle
jūta m. n. jūtā f.

Past Active Participle
jūtavat m. n. jūtavatī f.

Present Active Participle
javat m. n. javantī f.

Present Middle Participle
javamāna m. n. javamānā f.

Present Passive Participle
jūyamāna m. n. jūyamānā f.

Future Active Participle
javiṣyat m. n. javiṣyantī f.

Future Middle Participle
javiṣyamāṇa m. n. javiṣyamāṇā f.

Future Passive Participle
javitavya m. n. javitavyā f.

Future Passive Participle
javya m. n. javyā f.

Future Passive Participle
javanīya m. n. javanīyā f.

Perfect Active Participle
jujūvaḥ m. n. jujūṣī f.

Perfect Middle Participle
jujvāna m. n. jujvānā f.

Indeclinable forms

Infinitive
javitum

Absolutive
jūtvā

Absolutive
-jūya

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